Installation

phpMyAdmin does not apply any special security methods to the MySQL
database server. It is still the system administrator’s job to grant
permissions on the MySQL databases properly. phpMyAdmin’s Users
page can be used for this.

Linux distributions

phpMyAdmin is included in most Linux distributions. It is recommended to use
distribution packages when possible – they usually provide integration to your
distribution and you will automatically get security updates from your distribution.

Debian and Ubuntu

Most Debian and Ubuntu versions include a phpMyAdmin package, but be aware that
the configuration file is maintained in /etc/phpmyadmin and may differ in
some ways from the official phpMyAdmin documentation. Specifically, it does:

More specific details about installing Debian or Ubuntu packages are available
in our wiki.

See also

More information can be found in README.Debian
(it is installed as /usr/share/doc/phpmyadmin/README.Debian with the package).

OpenSUSE

OpenSUSE already comes with phpMyAdmin package, just install packages from
the openSUSE Build Service.

Gentoo

Gentoo ships the phpMyAdmin package, both in a near-stock configuration as well
as in a webapp-config configuration. Use emerge dev-db/phpmyadmin to
install.

Mandriva

Mandriva ships the phpMyAdmin package in their contrib branch and can be
installed via the usual Control Center.

Fedora

Fedora ships the phpMyAdmin package, but be aware that the configuration file
is maintained in /etc/phpMyAdmin/ and may differ in some ways from the
official phpMyAdmin documentation.

Red Hat Enterprise Linux

Red Hat Enterprise Linux itself and thus derivatives like CentOS don’t
ship phpMyAdmin, but the Fedora-driven repository
Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux (EPEL)
is doing so, if it’s
enabled.
But be aware that the configuration file is maintained in
/etc/phpMyAdmin/ and may differ in some ways from the
official phpMyAdmin documentation.

Installing on Windows

The easiest way to get phpMyAdmin on Windows is using third party products
which include phpMyAdmin together with a database and web server such as
XAMPP.

You can find more of such options at Wikipedia.

Installing from Git

In order to install from Git, you’ll need a few supporting applications:

You can clone current phpMyAdmin source from
https://github.com/phpmyadmin/phpmyadmin.git:

git clone https://github.com/phpmyadmin/phpmyadmin.git

Additionally you need to install dependencies using Composer:

composer update

If you do not intend to develop, you can skip the installation of developer tools
by invoking:

composer update --no-dev

Finally, you’ll need to use Yarn to install some JavaScript dependencies:

yarn install --production

Installing using Composer

You can install phpMyAdmin using the Composer tool, since 4.7.0 the releases
are automatically mirrored to the default Packagist repository.

Note

The content of the Composer repository is automatically generated
separately from the releases, so the content doesn’t have to be
100% same as when you download the tarball. There should be no
functional differences though.

To install phpMyAdmin simply run:

composer create-project phpmyadmin/phpmyadmin

Alternatively you can use our own composer repository, which contains
the release tarballs and is available at
<https://www.phpmyadmin.net/packages.json>:

composer create-project phpmyadmin/phpmyadmin --repository-url=https://www.phpmyadmin.net/packages.json --no-dev

Installing using Docker

phpMyAdmin comes with a Docker official image, which you can easily deploy. You can
download it using:

docker pull phpmyadmin

The phpMyAdmin server will listen on port 80. It supports several ways of
configuring the link to the database server, either by Docker’s link feature
by linking your database container to db for phpMyAdmin (by specifying
--link your_db_host:db) or by environment variables (in this case it’s up
to you to set up networking in Docker to allow the phpMyAdmin container to access
the database container over the network).

Docker environment variables

You can configure several phpMyAdmin features using environment variables:

PMA_ARBITRARY

Allows you to enter a database server hostname on login form.

PMA_HOST

Hostname or IP address of the database server to use.

PMA_HOSTS

Comma-separated hostnames or IP addresses of the database servers to use.

Note

Used only if PMA_HOST is empty.

PMA_VERBOSE

Verbose name of the database server.

PMA_VERBOSES

Comma-separated verbose name of the database servers.

Note

Used only if PMA_VERBOSE is empty.

PMA_USER

User name to use for Config authentication mode.

PMA_PASSWORD

Password to use for Config authentication mode.

PMA_PORT

Port of the database server to use.

PMA_PORTS

Comma-separated ports of the database server to use.

Note

Used only if PMA_PORT is empty.

PMA_ABSOLUTE_URI

The fully-qualified path (https://pma.example.net/) where the reverse
proxy makes phpMyAdmin available.

HIDE_PHP_VERSION

If defined, this option will hide the PHP version (expose_php = Off).
Set to any value (such as HIDE_PHP_VERSION=true).

UPLOAD_LIMIT

If set, this option will override the default value for apache and php-fpm (this will change upload_max_filesize and post_max_size values).

Note

Format as [0-9+](K,M,G) default value is 2048K

PMA_CONFIG_BASE64

If set, this option will override the default config.inc.php with the base64 decoded contents of the variable.

PMA_USER_CONFIG_BASE64

If set, this option will override the default config.user.inc.php with the base64 decoded contents of the variable.

By default, Cookie authentication mode is used, but if PMA_USER and
PMA_PASSWORD are set, it is switched to Config authentication mode.

Note

The credentials you need to log in are stored in the MySQL server, in case
of Docker image, there are various ways to set it (for example
MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD when starting the MySQL container). Please check
documentation for MariaDB container
or MySQL container.

Customizing configuration

Additionally configuration can be tweaked by /etc/phpmyadmin/config.user.inc.php. If
this file exists, it will be loaded after configuration is generated from above
environment variables, so you can override any configuration variable. This
configuration can be added as a volume when invoking docker using
-v /some/local/directory/config.user.inc.php:/etc/phpmyadmin/config.user.inc.php parameters.

Note that the supplied configuration file is applied after Docker environment variables,
but you can override any of the values.

For example to change the default behavior of CSV export you can use the following
configuration file:

<?php
$cfg['Export']['csv_columns'] = true;

You can also use it to define server configuration instead of using the
environment variables listed in Docker environment variables:

<?php
/* Override Servers array */
$cfg['Servers'] = [
    1 => [
        'auth_type' => 'cookie',
        'host' => 'mydb1',
        'port' => 3306,
        'verbose' => 'Verbose name 1',
    ],
    2 => [
        'auth_type' => 'cookie',
        'host' => 'mydb2',
        'port' => 3306,
        'verbose' => 'Verbose name 2',
    ],
];

See also

See Configuration for detailed description of configuration options.

Docker Volumes

You can use the following volumes to customize image behavior:

/etc/phpmyadmin/config.user.inc.php

Can be used for additional settings, see the previous chapter for more details.

/sessions/

Directory where PHP sessions are stored. You might want to share this
for example when using Signon authentication mode.

/www/themes/

Directory where phpMyAdmin looks for themes. By default only those shipped
with phpMyAdmin are included, but you can include additional phpMyAdmin
themes (see Custom Themes) by using Docker volumes.

Docker Examples

To connect phpMyAdmin to a given server use:

docker run --name myadmin -d -e PMA_HOST=dbhost -p 8080:80 phpmyadmin/phpmyadmin

To connect phpMyAdmin to more servers use:

docker run --name myadmin -d -e PMA_HOSTS=dbhost1,dbhost2,dbhost3 -p 8080:80 phpmyadmin/phpmyadmin

To use arbitrary server option:

docker run --name myadmin -d --link mysql_db_server:db -p 8080:80 -e PMA_ARBITRARY=1 phpmyadmin/phpmyadmin

You can also link the database container using Docker:

docker run --name phpmyadmin -d --link mysql_db_server:db -p 8080:80 phpmyadmin/phpmyadmin

Running with additional configuration:

docker run --name phpmyadmin -d --link mysql_db_server:db -p 8080:80 -v /some/local/directory/config.user.inc.php:/etc/phpmyadmin/config.user.inc.php phpmyadmin/phpmyadmin

Running with additional themes:

docker run --name phpmyadmin -d --link mysql_db_server:db -p 8080:80 -v /custom/phpmyadmin/theme/:/www/themes/theme/ phpmyadmin/phpmyadmin

Using docker-compose

Alternatively, you can also use docker-compose with the docker-compose.yml from
<https://github.com/phpmyadmin/docker>. This will run phpMyAdmin with an
arbitrary server – allowing you to specify MySQL/MariaDB server on the login page.

docker-compose up -d

Customizing configuration file using docker-compose

You can use an external file to customize phpMyAdmin configuration and pass it
using the volumes directive:

phpmyadmin:
    image: phpmyadmin/phpmyadmin
    container_name: phpmyadmin
    environment:
     - PMA_ARBITRARY=1
    restart: always
    ports:
     - 8080:80
    volumes:
     - /sessions
     - ~/docker/phpmyadmin/config.user.inc.php:/etc/phpmyadmin/config.user.inc.php
     - /custom/phpmyadmin/theme/:/www/themes/theme/

Running behind haproxy in a subdirectory

When you want to expose phpMyAdmin running in a Docker container in a
subdirectory, you need to rewrite the request path in the server proxying the
requests.

For example, using haproxy it can be done as:

frontend http
    bind *:80
    option forwardfor
    option http-server-close

    ### NETWORK restriction
    acl LOCALNET  src 10.0.0.0/8 192.168.0.0/16 172.16.0.0/12

    # /phpmyadmin
    acl phpmyadmin  path_dir /phpmyadmin
    use_backend phpmyadmin if phpmyadmin LOCALNET

backend phpmyadmin
    mode http

    reqirep  ^(GET|POST|HEAD) /phpmyadmin/(.*)     1 /2

    # phpMyAdmin container IP
    server localhost     172.30.21.21:80

When using traefik, something like following should work:

defaultEntryPoints = ["http"]
[entryPoints]
  [entryPoints.http]
  address = ":80"
    [entryPoints.http.redirect]
      regex = "(http:\/\/[^\/]+\/([^\?\.]+)[^\/])$"
      replacement = "$1/"

[backends]
  [backends.myadmin]
    [backends.myadmin.servers.myadmin]
    url="http://internal.address.to.pma"

[frontends]
   [frontends.myadmin]
   backend = "myadmin"
   passHostHeader = true
     [frontends.myadmin.routes.default]
     rule="PathPrefixStrip:/phpmyadmin/;AddPrefix:/"

You then should specify PMA_ABSOLUTE_URI in the docker-compose
configuration:

version: '2'

services:
  phpmyadmin:
    restart: always
    image: phpmyadmin/phpmyadmin
    container_name: phpmyadmin
    hostname: phpmyadmin
    domainname: example.com
    ports:
      - 8000:80
    environment:
      - PMA_HOSTS=172.26.36.7,172.26.36.8,172.26.36.9,172.26.36.10
      - PMA_VERBOSES=production-db1,production-db2,dev-db1,dev-db2
      - PMA_USER=root
      - PMA_PASSWORD=
      - PMA_ABSOLUTE_URI=http://example.com/phpmyadmin/

IBM Cloud

One of our users has created a helpful guide for installing phpMyAdmin on the
IBM Cloud platform.

Quick Install

  1. Choose an appropriate distribution kit from the phpmyadmin.net
    Downloads page. Some kits contain only the English messages, others
    contain all languages. We’ll assume you chose a kit whose name
    looks like phpMyAdmin-x.x.x -all-languages.tar.gz.

  2. Ensure you have downloaded a genuine archive, see Verifying phpMyAdmin releases.

  3. Untar or unzip the distribution (be sure to unzip the subdirectories):
    tar -xzvf phpMyAdmin_x.x.x-all-languages.tar.gz in your
    webserver’s document root. If you don’t have direct access to your
    document root, put the files in a directory on your local machine,
    and, after step 4, transfer the directory on your web server using,
    for example, FTP.

  4. Ensure that all the scripts have the appropriate owner (if PHP is
    running in safe mode, having some scripts with an owner different from
    the owner of other scripts will be a problem). See 4.2 What’s the preferred way of making phpMyAdmin secure against evil access? and
    1.26 I just installed phpMyAdmin in my document root of IIS but I get the error “No input file specified” when trying to run phpMyAdmin. for suggestions.

  5. Now you must configure your installation. There are two methods that
    can be used. Traditionally, users have hand-edited a copy of
    config.inc.php, but now a wizard-style setup script is provided
    for those who prefer a graphical installation. Creating a
    config.inc.php is still a quick way to get started and needed for
    some advanced features.

Manually creating the file

To manually create the file, simply use your text editor to create the
file config.inc.php (you can copy config.sample.inc.php to get
a minimal configuration file) in the main (top-level) phpMyAdmin
directory (the one that contains index.php). phpMyAdmin first
loads the default configuration values and then overrides those values
with anything found in config.inc.php. If the default value is
okay for a particular setting, there is no need to include it in
config.inc.php. You’ll probably need only a few directives to get going; a
simple configuration may look like this:

<?php
// use here a value of your choice at least 32 chars long
$cfg['blowfish_secret'] = '1{dd0`<Q),5XP_:R9UK%%8"EEcyH#{o';

$i=0;
$i++;
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['auth_type']     = 'cookie';
// if you insist on "root" having no password:
// $cfg['Servers'][$i]['AllowNoPassword'] = true;

Or, if you prefer to not be prompted every time you log in:

<?php

$i=0;
$i++;
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['user']          = 'root';
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['password']      = 'changeme'; // use here your password
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['auth_type']     = 'config';

Warning

Storing passwords in the configuration is insecure as anybody can then
manipulate your database.

For a full explanation of possible configuration values, see the
Configuration of this document.

Using the Setup script

Instead of manually editing config.inc.php, you can use phpMyAdmin’s
setup feature. The file can be generated using the setup and you can download it
for upload to the server.

Next, open your browser and visit the location where you installed phpMyAdmin,
with the /setup suffix. The changes are not saved to the server, you need to
use the Download button to save them to your computer and then upload
to the server.

Now the file is ready to be used. You can choose to review or edit the
file with your favorite editor, if you prefer to set some advanced
options that the setup script does not provide.

  1. If you are using the auth_type “config”, it is suggested that you
    protect the phpMyAdmin installation directory because using config
    does not require a user to enter a password to access the phpMyAdmin
    installation. Use of an alternate authentication method is
    recommended, for example with HTTP–AUTH in a .htaccess file or switch to using
    auth_type cookie or http. See the ISPs, multi-user installations
    for additional information, especially 4.4 phpMyAdmin always gives “Access denied” when using HTTP authentication..

  2. Open the main phpMyAdmin directory in your browser.
    phpMyAdmin should now display a welcome screen and your databases, or
    a login dialog if using HTTP or
    cookie authentication mode.

Setup script on Debian, Ubuntu and derivatives

Debian and Ubuntu have changed the way in which the setup script is enabled and disabled, in a way
that single command has to be executed for either of these.

To allow editing configuration invoke:

/usr/sbin/pma-configure

To block editing configuration invoke:

/usr/sbin/pma-secure

Setup script on openSUSE

Some openSUSE releases do not include setup script in the package. In case you
want to generate configuration on these you can either download original
package from <https://www.phpmyadmin.net/> or use setup script on our demo
server: <https://demo.phpmyadmin.net/master/setup/>.

Verifying phpMyAdmin releases

Since July 2015 all phpMyAdmin releases are cryptographically signed by the
releasing developer, who through January 2016 was Marc Delisle. His key id is
0xFEFC65D181AF644A, his PGP fingerprint is:

436F F188 4B1A 0C3F DCBF 0D79 FEFC 65D1 81AF 644A

and you can get more identification information from <https://keybase.io/lem9>.

Beginning in January 2016, the release manager is Isaac Bennetch. His key id is
0xCE752F178259BD92, and his PGP fingerprint is:

3D06 A59E CE73 0EB7 1B51 1C17 CE75 2F17 8259 BD92

and you can get more identification information from <https://keybase.io/ibennetch>.

Some additional downloads (for example themes) might be signed by Michal Čihař. His key id is
0x9C27B31342B7511D, and his PGP fingerprint is:

63CB 1DF1 EF12 CF2A C0EE 5A32 9C27 B313 42B7 511D

and you can get more identification information from <https://keybase.io/nijel>.

You should verify that the signature matches the archive you have downloaded.
This way you can be sure that you are using the same code that was released.
You should also verify the date of the signature to make sure that you
downloaded the latest version.

Each archive is accompanied by .asc files which contain the PGP signature
for it. Once you have both of them in the same folder, you can verify the signature:

$ gpg --verify phpMyAdmin-4.5.4.1-all-languages.zip.asc
gpg: Signature made Fri 29 Jan 2016 08:59:37 AM EST using RSA key ID 8259BD92
gpg: Can't check signature: public key not found

As you can see gpg complains that it does not know the public key. At this
point, you should do one of the following steps:

$ gpg --import phpmyadmin.keyring
  • Download and import the key from one of the key servers:

$ gpg --keyserver hkp://pgp.mit.edu --recv-keys 3D06A59ECE730EB71B511C17CE752F178259BD92
gpg: requesting key 8259BD92 from hkp server pgp.mit.edu
gpg: key 8259BD92: public key "Isaac Bennetch <[email protected]>" imported
gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found
gpg: Total number processed: 1
gpg:               imported: 1  (RSA: 1)

This will improve the situation a bit – at this point, you can verify that the
signature from the given key is correct but you still can not trust the name used
in the key:

$ gpg --verify phpMyAdmin-4.5.4.1-all-languages.zip.asc
gpg: Signature made Fri 29 Jan 2016 08:59:37 AM EST using RSA key ID 8259BD92
gpg: Good signature from "Isaac Bennetch <[email protected]>"
gpg:                 aka "Isaac Bennetch <[email protected]>"
gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature!
gpg:          There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner.
Primary key fingerprint: 3D06 A59E CE73 0EB7 1B51  1C17 CE75 2F17 8259 BD92

The problem here is that anybody could issue the key with this name. You need to
ensure that the key is actually owned by the mentioned person. The GNU Privacy
Handbook covers this topic in the chapter Validating other keys on your public
keyring
. The most reliable method is to meet the developer in person and
exchange key fingerprints, however, you can also rely on the web of trust. This way
you can trust the key transitively though signatures of others, who have met
the developer in person.

Once the key is trusted, the warning will not occur:

$ gpg --verify phpMyAdmin-4.5.4.1-all-languages.zip.asc
gpg: Signature made Fri 29 Jan 2016 08:59:37 AM EST using RSA key ID 8259BD92
gpg: Good signature from "Isaac Bennetch <[email protected]>" [full]

Should the signature be invalid (the archive has been changed), you would get a
clear error regardless of the fact that the key is trusted or not:

$ gpg --verify phpMyAdmin-4.5.4.1-all-languages.zip.asc
gpg: Signature made Fri 29 Jan 2016 08:59:37 AM EST using RSA key ID 8259BD92
gpg: BAD signature from "Isaac Bennetch <[email protected]>" [unknown]

phpMyAdmin configuration storage

Changed in version 3.4.0: Prior to phpMyAdmin 3.4.0 this was called Linked Tables Infrastructure, but
the name was changed due to the extended scope of the storage.

For a whole set of additional features (Bookmarks, comments, SQL-history,
tracking mechanism, PDF-generation, Transformations, Relations
etc.) you need to create a set of special tables. Those tables can be located
in your own database, or in a central database for a multi-user installation
(this database would then be accessed by the controluser, so no other user
should have rights to it).

Zero configuration

In many cases, this database structure can be automatically created and
configured. This is called “Zero Configuration” mode and can be particularly
useful in shared hosting situations. “Zeroconf” mode is on by default, to
disable set $cfg['ZeroConf'] to false.

The following three scenarios are covered by the Zero Configuration mode:

  • When entering a database where the configuration storage tables are not
    present, phpMyAdmin offers to create them from the Operations tab.

  • When entering a database where the tables do already exist, the software
    automatically detects this and begins using them. This is the most common
    situation; after the tables are initially created automatically they are
    continually used without disturbing the user; this is also most useful on
    shared hosting where the user is not able to edit config.inc.php and
    usually the user only has access to one database.

  • When having access to multiple databases, if the user first enters the
    database containing the configuration storage tables then switches to
    another database,
    phpMyAdmin continues to use the tables from the first database; the user is
    not prompted to create more tables in the new database.

Manual configuration

Please look at your ./sql/ directory, where you should find a
file called create_tables.sql. (If you are using a Windows server,
pay special attention to 1.23 I’m running MySQL on a Win32 machine. Each time I create a new table the table and column names are changed to lowercase!).

If you already had this infrastructure and:

  • upgraded to MySQL 4.1.2 or newer, please use
    sql/upgrade_tables_mysql_4_1_2+.sql.

  • upgraded to phpMyAdmin 4.3.0 or newer from 2.5.0 or newer (<= 4.2.x),
    please use sql/upgrade_column_info_4_3_0+.sql.

  • upgraded to phpMyAdmin 4.7.0 or newer from 4.3.0 or newer,
    please use sql/upgrade_tables_4_7_0+.sql.

and then create new tables by importing sql/create_tables.sql.

You can use your phpMyAdmin to create the tables for you. Please be
aware that you may need special (administrator) privileges to create
the database and tables, and that the script may need some tuning,
depending on the database name.

After having imported the sql/create_tables.sql file, you
should specify the table names in your config.inc.php file. The
directives used for that can be found in the Configuration.

You will also need to have a controluser
($cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] and
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] settings)
with the proper rights to those tables. For example you can create it
using following statement:

And for any MariaDB version:

CREATE USER 'pma'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED VIA mysql_native_password USING 'pmapass';
GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE ON `<pma_db>`.* TO 'pma'@'localhost';

For MySQL 8.0 and newer:

CREATE USER 'pma'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED WITH caching_sha2_password BY 'pmapass';
GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE ON <pma_db>.* TO 'pma'@'localhost';

For MySQL older than 8.0:

CREATE USER 'pma'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED WITH mysql_native_password AS 'pmapass';
GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE ON <pma_db>.* TO 'pma'@'localhost';

Note that MySQL installations with PHP older than 7.4 and MySQL newer than 8.0 may require
using the mysql_native_password authentication as a workaround, see
1.45 I get an error message about unknown authentication method caching_sha2_password when trying to log in for details.

Upgrading from an older version

Warning

Never extract the new version over an existing installation of
phpMyAdmin, always first remove the old files keeping just the
configuration.

This way, you will not leave any old or outdated files in the directory,
which can have severe security implications or can cause various breakages.

Simply copy config.inc.php from your previous installation into
the newly unpacked one. Configuration files from old versions may
require some tweaking as some options have been changed or removed.
For compatibility with PHP 5.3 and later, remove a
set_magic_quotes_runtime(0); statement that you might find near
the end of your configuration file.

The complete upgrade can be performed in a few simple steps:

  1. Download the latest phpMyAdmin version from <https://www.phpmyadmin.net/downloads/>.

  2. Rename existing phpMyAdmin folder (for example to phpmyadmin-old).

  3. Unpack freshly downloaded phpMyAdmin to the desired location (for example phpmyadmin).

  4. Copy config.inc.php` from old location (phpmyadmin-old) to the new one (phpmyadmin).

  5. Test that everything works properly.

  6. Remove backup of a previous version (phpmyadmin-old).

If you have upgraded your MySQL server from a version previous to 4.1.2 to
version 5.x or newer and if you use the phpMyAdmin configuration storage, you
should run the SQL script found in
sql/upgrade_tables_mysql_4_1_2+.sql.

If you have upgraded your phpMyAdmin to 4.3.0 or newer from 2.5.0 or
newer (<= 4.2.x) and if you use the phpMyAdmin configuration storage, you
should run the SQL script found in
sql/upgrade_column_info_4_3_0+.sql.

Do not forget to clear the browser cache and to empty the old session by
logging out and logging in again.

Using authentication modes

HTTP and cookie authentication modes are recommended in a multi-user
environment
where you want to give users access to their own database and
don’t want them to play around with others. Nevertheless, be aware that MS
Internet Explorer seems to be really buggy about cookies, at least till version
6. Even in a single-user environment, you might prefer to use HTTP
or cookie mode so that your user/password pair are not in clear in the
configuration file.

HTTP and cookie authentication
modes are more secure: the MySQL login information does not need to be
set in the phpMyAdmin configuration file (except possibly for the
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser']).
However, keep in mind that the password travels in plain text unless
you are using the HTTPS protocol. In cookie mode, the password is
stored, encrypted with the AES algorithm, in a temporary cookie.

Then each of the true users should be granted a set of privileges
on a set of particular databases. Normally you shouldn’t give global
privileges to an ordinary user unless you understand the impact of those
privileges (for example, you are creating a superuser).
For example, to grant the user real_user with all privileges on
the database user_base:

GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON user_base.* TO 'real_user'@localhost IDENTIFIED BY 'real_password';

What the user may now do is controlled entirely by the MySQL user management
system. With HTTP or cookie authentication mode, you don’t need to fill the
user/password fields inside the $cfg['Servers'].

HTTP authentication mode

Note

There is no way to do proper logout in HTTP authentication, most browsers
will remember credentials until there is no different successful
authentication. Because of this, this method has a limitation that you can not
login with the same user after logout.

Signon authentication mode

The very basic example of saving credentials in a session is available as
examples/signon.php:

<?php
/**
 * Single signon for phpMyAdmin
 *
 * This is just example how to use session based single signon with
 * phpMyAdmin, it is not intended to be perfect code and look, only
 * shows how you can integrate this functionality in your application.
 */

declare(strict_types=1);

/* Use cookies for session */
ini_set('session.use_cookies', 'true');
/* Change this to true if using phpMyAdmin over https */
$secure_cookie = false;
/* Need to have cookie visible from parent directory */
session_set_cookie_params(0, '/', '', $secure_cookie, true);
/* Create signon session */
$session_name = 'SignonSession';
session_name($session_name);
// Uncomment and change the following line to match your $cfg['SessionSavePath']
//session_save_path('/foobar');
@session_start();

/* Was data posted? */
if (isset($_POST['user'])) {
    /* Store there credentials */
    $_SESSION['PMA_single_signon_user'] = $_POST['user'];
    $_SESSION['PMA_single_signon_password'] = $_POST['password'];
    $_SESSION['PMA_single_signon_host'] = $_POST['host'];
    $_SESSION['PMA_single_signon_port'] = $_POST['port'];
    /* Update another field of server configuration */
    $_SESSION['PMA_single_signon_cfgupdate'] = ['verbose' => 'Signon test'];
    $_SESSION['PMA_single_signon_HMAC_secret'] = hash('sha1', uniqid(strval(random_int(0, mt_getrandmax())), true));
    $id = session_id();
    /* Close that session */
    @session_write_close();
    /* Redirect to phpMyAdmin (should use absolute URL here!) */
    header('Location: ../index.php');
} else {
    /* Show simple form */
    header('Content-Type: text/html; charset=utf-8');

    echo '<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>' . "n";
    echo '<!DOCTYPE HTML>
<html lang="en" dir="ltr">
<head>
<link rel="icon" href="../favicon.ico" type="image/x-icon">
<link rel="shortcut icon" href="../favicon.ico" type="image/x-icon">
<meta charset="utf-8">
<title>phpMyAdmin single signon example</title>
</head>
<body>';

    if (isset($_SESSION['PMA_single_signon_error_message'])) {
        echo '<p class="error">';
        echo $_SESSION['PMA_single_signon_error_message'];
        echo '</p>';
    }

    echo '<form action="signon.php" method="post">
Username: <input type="text" name="user" autocomplete="username"><br>
Password: <input type="password" name="password" autocomplete="current-password"><br>
Host: (will use the one from config.inc.php by default)
<input type="text" name="host"><br>
Port: (will use the one from config.inc.php by default)
<input type="text" name="port"><br>
<input type="submit">
</form>
</body>
</html>';
}

Alternatively, you can also use this way to integrate with OpenID as shown
in examples/openid.php:

<?php
/**
 * Single signon for phpMyAdmin using OpenID
 *
 * This is just example how to use single signon with phpMyAdmin, it is
 * not intended to be perfect code and look, only shows how you can
 * integrate this functionality in your application.
 *
 * It uses OpenID pear package, see https://pear.php.net/package/OpenID
 *
 * User first authenticates using OpenID and based on content of $AUTH_MAP
 * the login information is passed to phpMyAdmin in session data.
 */

declare(strict_types=1);

if (false === @include_once 'OpenID/RelyingParty.php') {
    exit;
}

/* Change this to true if using phpMyAdmin over https */
$secure_cookie = false;

/**
 * Map of authenticated users to MySQL user/password pairs.
 */
$AUTH_MAP = [
    'https://launchpad.net/~username' => [
        'user' => 'root',
        'password' => '',
    ],
];

// phpcs:disable PSR1.Files.SideEffects,Squiz.Functions.GlobalFunction

/**
 * Simple function to show HTML page with given content.
 *
 * @param string $contents Content to include in page
 */
function Show_page($contents): void
{
    header('Content-Type: text/html; charset=utf-8');

    echo '<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>' . "n";
    echo '<!DOCTYPE HTML>
<html lang="en" dir="ltr">
<head>
<link rel="icon" href="../favicon.ico" type="image/x-icon">
<link rel="shortcut icon" href="../favicon.ico" type="image/x-icon">
<meta charset="utf-8">
<title>phpMyAdmin OpenID signon example</title>
</head>
<body>';

    if (isset($_SESSION['PMA_single_signon_error_message'])) {
        echo '<p class="error">' . $_SESSION['PMA_single_signon_message'] . '</p>';
        unset($_SESSION['PMA_single_signon_message']);
    }

    echo $contents;
    echo '</body></html>';
}

/**
 * Display error and exit
 *
 * @param Exception $e Exception object
 */
function Die_error($e): void
{
    $contents = "<div class='relyingparty_results'>n";
    $contents .= '<pre>' . htmlspecialchars($e->getMessage()) . "</pre>n";
    $contents .= "</div class='relyingparty_results'>";
    Show_page($contents);
    exit;
}

// phpcs:enable

/* Need to have cookie visible from parent directory */
session_set_cookie_params(0, '/', '', $secure_cookie, true);
/* Create signon session */
$session_name = 'SignonSession';
session_name($session_name);
@session_start();

// Determine realm and return_to
$base = 'http';
if (isset($_SERVER['HTTPS']) && $_SERVER['HTTPS'] === 'on') {
    $base .= 's';
}

$base .= '://' . $_SERVER['SERVER_NAME'] . ':' . $_SERVER['SERVER_PORT'];

$realm = $base . '/';
$returnTo = $base . dirname($_SERVER['PHP_SELF']);
if ($returnTo[strlen($returnTo) - 1] !== '/') {
    $returnTo .= '/';
}

$returnTo .= 'openid.php';

/* Display form */
if ((! count($_GET) && ! count($_POST)) || isset($_GET['phpMyAdmin'])) {
    /* Show simple form */
    $content = '<form action="openid.php" method="post">
OpenID: <input type="text" name="identifier"><br>
<input type="submit" name="start">
</form>';
    Show_page($content);
    exit;
}

/* Grab identifier */
$identifier = null;
if (isset($_POST['identifier']) && is_string($_POST['identifier'])) {
    $identifier = $_POST['identifier'];
} elseif (isset($_SESSION['identifier']) && is_string($_SESSION['identifier'])) {
    $identifier = $_SESSION['identifier'];
}

/* Create OpenID object */
try {
    $o = new OpenID_RelyingParty($returnTo, $realm, $identifier);
} catch (Throwable $e) {
    Die_error($e);
}

/* Redirect to OpenID provider */
if (isset($_POST['start'])) {
    try {
        $authRequest = $o->prepare();
    } catch (Throwable $e) {
        Die_error($e);
    }

    $url = $authRequest->getAuthorizeURL();

    header('Location: ' . $url);
    exit;
}

/* Grab query string */
if (! count($_POST)) {
    [, $queryString] = explode('?', $_SERVER['REQUEST_URI']);
} else {
    // Fetch the raw query body
    $queryString = file_get_contents('php://input');
}

/* Check reply */
try {
    $message = new OpenID_Message($queryString, OpenID_Message::FORMAT_HTTP);
} catch (Throwable $e) {
    Die_error($e);
}

$id = $message->get('openid.claimed_id');

if (empty($id) || ! isset($AUTH_MAP[$id])) {
    Show_page('<p>User not allowed!</p>');
    exit;
}

$_SESSION['PMA_single_signon_user'] = $AUTH_MAP[$id]['user'];
$_SESSION['PMA_single_signon_password'] = $AUTH_MAP[$id]['password'];
$_SESSION['PMA_single_signon_HMAC_secret'] = hash('sha1', uniqid(strval(random_int(0, mt_getrandmax())), true));
session_write_close();
/* Redirect to phpMyAdmin (should use absolute URL here!) */
header('Location: ../index.php');

If you intend to pass the credentials using some other means than, you have to
implement wrapper in PHP to get that data and set it to
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['SignonScript']. There is a very minimal example
in examples/signon-script.php:

<?php
/**
 * Single signon for phpMyAdmin
 *
 * This is just example how to use script based single signon with
 * phpMyAdmin, it is not intended to be perfect code and look, only
 * shows how you can integrate this functionality in your application.
 */

declare(strict_types=1);

// phpcs:disable Squiz.Functions.GlobalFunction

/**
 * This function returns username and password.
 *
 * It can optionally use configured username as parameter.
 *
 * @param string $user User name
 *
 * @return array
 */
function get_login_credentials($user)
{
    /* Optionally we can use passed username */
    if (! empty($user)) {
        return [
            $user,
            'password',
        ];
    }

    /* Here we would retrieve the credentials */
    return [
        'root',
        '',
    ];
}

Config authentication mode

  • This mode is sometimes the less secure one because it requires you to fill the
    $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] and
    $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password']
    fields (and as a result, anyone who can read your config.inc.php
    can discover your username and password).

  • In the ISPs, multi-user installations section, there is an entry explaining how
    to protect your configuration file.

  • For additional security in this mode, you may wish to consider the
    Host authentication $cfg['Servers'][$i]['AllowDeny']['order']
    and $cfg['Servers'][$i]['AllowDeny']['rules'] configuration directives.

  • Unlike cookie and http, does not require a user to log in when first
    loading the phpMyAdmin site. This is by design but could allow any
    user to access your installation. Use of some restriction method is
    suggested, perhaps a .htaccess file with the HTTP-AUTH directive or disallowing
    incoming HTTP requests at one’s router or firewall will suffice (both
    of which are beyond the scope of this manual but easily searchable
    with Google).

Securing your phpMyAdmin installation

The phpMyAdmin team tries hard to make the application secure, however there
are always ways to make your installation more secure:

  • Follow our Security announcements and upgrade
    phpMyAdmin whenever new vulnerability is published.

  • Serve phpMyAdmin on HTTPS only. Preferably, you should use HSTS as well, so that
    you’re protected from protocol downgrade attacks.

  • Ensure your PHP setup follows recommendations for production sites, for example
    display_errors
    should be disabled.

  • Remove the test directory from phpMyAdmin, unless you are developing and need a test suite.

  • Remove the setup directory from phpMyAdmin, you will probably not
    use it after the initial setup.

  • Properly choose an authentication method – Cookie authentication mode
    is probably the best choice for shared hosting.

  • Deny access to auxiliary files in ./libraries/ or
    ./templates/ subfolders in your webserver configuration.
    Such configuration prevents from possible path exposure and cross side
    scripting vulnerabilities that might happen to be found in that code. For the
    Apache webserver, this is often accomplished with a .htaccess file in
    those directories.

  • Deny access to temporary files, see $cfg['TempDir'] (if that
    is placed inside your web root, see also Web server upload/save/import directories.

  • It is generally a good idea to protect a public phpMyAdmin installation
    against access by robots as they usually can not do anything good there. You
    can do this using robots.txt file in the root of your webserver or limit
    access by web server configuration, see 1.42 How can I prevent robots from accessing phpMyAdmin?.

  • In case you don’t want all MySQL users to be able to access
    phpMyAdmin, you can use $cfg['Servers'][$i]['AllowDeny']['rules'] to limit them
    or $cfg['Servers'][$i]['AllowRoot'] to deny root user access.

  • Enable Two-factor authentication for your account.

  • Consider hiding phpMyAdmin behind an authentication proxy, so that
    users need to authenticate prior to providing MySQL credentials
    to phpMyAdmin. You can achieve this by configuring your web server to request
    HTTP authentication. For example in Apache this can be done with:

    AuthType Basic
    AuthName "Restricted Access"
    AuthUserFile /usr/share/phpmyadmin/passwd
    Require valid-user
    

    Once you have changed the configuration, you need to create a list of users which
    can authenticate. This can be done using the htpasswd utility:

    htpasswd -c /usr/share/phpmyadmin/passwd username
    
  • If you are afraid of automated attacks, enabling Captcha by
    $cfg['CaptchaLoginPublicKey'] and
    $cfg['CaptchaLoginPrivateKey'] might be an option.

  • Failed login attempts are logged to syslog (if available, see
    $cfg['AuthLog']). This can allow using a tool such as
    fail2ban to block brute-force attempts. Note that the log file used by syslog
    is not the same as the Apache error or access log files.

  • In case you’re running phpMyAdmin together with other PHP applications, it is
    generally advised to use separate session storage for phpMyAdmin to avoid
    possible session-based attacks against it. You can use
    $cfg['SessionSavePath'] to achieve this.

Using SSL for connection to database server

It is recommended to use SSL when connecting to remote database server. There
are several configuration options involved in the SSL setup:

$cfg['Servers'][$i]['ssl']

Defines whether to use SSL at all. If you enable only this, the connection
will be encrypted, but there is not authentication of the connection – you
can not verify that you are talking to the right server.

$cfg['Servers'][$i]['ssl_key'] and $cfg['Servers'][$i]['ssl_cert']

This is used for authentication of client to the server.

$cfg['Servers'][$i]['ssl_ca'] and $cfg['Servers'][$i]['ssl_ca_path']

The certificate authorities you trust for server certificates.
This is used to ensure that you are talking to a trusted server.

$cfg['Servers'][$i]['ssl_verify']

This configuration disables server certificate verification. Use with
caution.

When the database server is using a local connection or private network and SSL can not be configured
you can use $cfg['MysqlSslWarningSafeHosts'] to explicitly list the hostnames that are considered secure.

Known issues

Users with column-specific privileges are unable to “Browse”

If a user has only column-specific privileges on some (but not all) columns in a table, “Browse”
will fail with an error message.

As a workaround, a bookmarked query with the same name as the table can be created, this will
run when using the “Browse” link instead. Issue 11922.

Trouble logging back in after logging out using ‘http’ authentication

When using the ‘http’ auth_type, it can be impossible to log back in (when the logout comes
manually or after a period of inactivity). Issue 11898.